Burnout among working mothers: The role of work-life balance and perceived organizational support


  • Bagus Riyono Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
  • Gebrina Rezki Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia




burnout, perceived organizational support, work from home, work-life balance, working mother


The pandemic of COVID-19 has influenced business in general. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most companies or organizations have been implementing work from home (WFH). For working mothers who have children, this WFH policy creates a more stressful situation since they simultaneously have to deal with work and family in the same place. This study investigated the role of work-life balance and perceived organizational support in the level of burnout tendency among working mothers. Two hundred thirty-seven working mothers who work from home participated in this study. Questionnaires were distributed to the working mothers to measure work-life balance, perceived organizational support, and burnout tendency. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypothesis. The results show work-life balance and perceived organizational support simultaneously predict burnout tendency. However, perceived organization support, especially a concern for employee welfare, contributes more to reducing burnout.  Therefore, human resource management may develop a policy to reduce burnout among women employees by concerning employee welfare in terms of compensation and benefit and creating a conducive working environment


Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45(1), 131–142. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164485451012

Andika, A. B. (2020). Peran iklim organisasi terhadap burnout pada operator call center [Master Thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada]. http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/penelitian/detail/183331

Artha, B. I., & Hidayat, A. E. (2018). Organizational predictors of employees burnout and engagement experiences. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 229, 809–823. https://doi.org/10.2991/iciap-18.2019.67

Ashfaq, S., Mahmood, Z., & Ahmad, M. (2013). Impact of work-life conflict and work over load on employee performance in banking sector of Pakistan. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 14(5), 688–695.

Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day’s work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. The Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 472–491. https://doi.org/10.2307/259305

Bakker, A. B., & de Vries, J. D. (2021). Job demands–resources theory and self-regulation: New explanations and remedies for job burnout. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 34(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1797695

Bakker, A. B., & van Woerkom, M. (2017). Flow at work: A self-determination perspective. Occupational Health Sciences, 1, 47–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41542-017-0003-3

Bloom, P. (2016). Work as the contemporary limit of life: Capitalism, the death drive, and the lethal fantasy of ‘work–life balance.’ Organization, 23(4), 588–606. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508415596604

Brummelhuis, L. L., ter Hoeven, C. L., Bakker, A. B., & Peper, B. (2011). Breaking through the loss cycle of burnout: The role of motivation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), 268–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2011.02019.x

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human Relations, 53(6), 747–770. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726700536001

Cooper, R., Baird, M., Foley, M., & Oxenbridge, S. (2021). Normative collusion in the industry ecosystem: Explaining women’s career pathways and outcomes in investment management. Human Relations, 74(11), 1916–1941. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726720942826

Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621–656. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1993.9402210153

Craig, L., & Sawrikar, P. (2009). Work and family: How does the (gender) balance change as children grow? Gender, Work and Organization, 16(6), 684–709. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2009.00481.x

de Beer, L. T., Pienaar, J., & Rothmann, S. (2014). Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study. South African Journal of Psychology, 44(4), 454–466. https://doi.org/10.1177/0081246314538249

Divinakumar, K. J., Pookala, S. B., & Das, R. C. (2014). Perceived stress, psychological well being, and burnout among female nurses working in government hospitals. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2(4), 1511–1515. https://doi.org/10.5455/2320-6012.ijrms20141150

Dobbs, L. (2007). Stuck in the slow lane: Reconceptualizing the links between gender, transport and employment. Gender, Work and Organization, 14(2), 85–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2007.00334.x

Doyle, C., & Hind, P. (1998). Occupational stress, burnout and job status in female academics. Gender, Work, and Organisation, 5(2), 67–82. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0432.00047

Dreison, K. C., Luther, L., Bonfils, K. A., Sliter, M. T., McGrew, J. H., & Salyers, M. P. (2018). Job burnout in mental health providers: A meta-analysis of 35 years of intervention research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(1), 18–30. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000047

Dumas, T. L., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2015). The professional, the personal, and the ideal worker: Pressures and objectives shaping the boundary between life domains. The Academy of Management Annals, 9(1), 803–843. https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2015.1028810

Edwards, J. A., & Billsberry, J. (2010). Testing a multidimensional theory of person-environment fit. Journal of Management Issues, 22(4), 476–493.

Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42–51.

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500–507.

Fisher, G. G., Bulger, C. A., & Smith, C. S. (2009). Beyond work and family: A measuring of work/nonwork interference and enhancement. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(4), 441–456.

Gądecki, J., Jewdokimow, M., & Żadkowska, M. (2018). New technologies and family life in the context of work at home: The strategies of work-life balance. Studia Humanistyczne AGH, 17(4), 77–89. https://doi.org/10.7494/human.2018.17.4.77

Garossa, E., Moreno-Jimenez, B., Liang, Y., & Gonzalez, J. L. (2008). The relationship between socio-demographic variables, job stressors, burnout, and hardy personality in nurses: an exploratory study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(3), 418–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.09.003

Gayathri, & Sajeethkumar. (2019). Work-life balance and perceived organizational support among IT employees. Journal of Information and Computational Science, 9(11), 634–642.

Greer, T. W., & Payne, S. C. (2014). Overcoming telework challenges: Outcomes of successful telework strategies. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 17(2), 87–111.

Güriş, S., Akyurt, N., & Astar, M. (2017). Factors affecting burnout, stress management, and job satisfaction of health professionals: A comparison of occupation groups from Istanbul. Medical Sciences, 12(4), 22–35. https://doi.org/10.12739/NWSA.2017.12.4.1B0044

Haar, J. M., Russo, M., Suñe, A., & Ollier-Malaterre, A. (2014). Outcomes of work–life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and mental health: A study across seven cultures. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 361–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2014.08.010

Hätinen, M., Kinnunen, U., Mäkikangas, A., Kalimo, R., Tolvanen, A., & Pekkonen, M. (2009). Burnout during a long-term rehabilitation: Comparing low burnout, high burnout–benefited and high burnout–not benefited trajectories. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 22(3), 341–360. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800802567023

House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Addison-Wesley Publisher.

Iswardhani, I., Brasit, N., & Mardiana, R. (2019). The effect of work-life balance and burnout on employee job satisfaction. Hasanuddin Journal of Business Strategy, 1(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.26487/hjbs.v1i2.212

Jain, A. K., Giga, S. I., & Cooper, C. L. (2013). Perceived organizational support as a moderator in the relationship between organizational stressors and organizational citizenship behaviors. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 21(3), 313–334. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijoa-mar-2012-0574

Knights, D., & Richards, W. (2003). Sex discrimination in UK academia. Gender, Work, and Organization, 10(2), 213–238. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0432.t01-1-00012

Kossek, E. E., Baltes, B. B., & Matthews, R. A. (2011). How work–family research can finally have an impact in organizations. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4(3), 352–369. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2011.01353.x

Kossek, E. E., Colquitt, J. A., & Noe, R. A. (2001). Caregiving decisions, well-being and performance: The effects of place and provider as a function of dependent type and work-family climates. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 29–44. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069335

Krasulja, N., Milica, V., & Ivana, R. (2015). Working from home as alternative for achieving work-life balance. Ekonomika, 61(2), 131–142. https://doi.org/10.5937/ekonomika1502131K

Leather, P., Lawrence, C., Beale, D., Cox, T., & Dickson, R. (1998). Exposure to occupational violence and the buffering effects of intra-organizational support. Work & Stress, 12(2), 161–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678379808256857

Lee, S.-Y., & Hong, J. H. (2011). Does family-friendly policy matter? Testing its impact on turnover and performance. Public Administration Review, 71(6), 870–879. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41317386

Lockwood, N. R. (2003). Work/life balances: Challenges and solutions. SHRM Research Department.

Lyonette, C., & Crompton, R. (2015). Sharing the load? Partners’ relative earnings and the domestic division of labour. Work, Employment and Society, 29(1), 23–40. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0950017014523661

Maricutoiu, L. P., & Crasovan, D. I. (2016). Coping and defence mechanisms: What are we assessing? International Journal of Psychology, 51(2), 83–92. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12113

Martin, L., Hauret, L., & Fuhrer, C. (2022). Digitally transformed home office impacts on job satisfaction, job stress and job productivity. COVID-19 findings. PLoS ONE, 17(3), e0265131. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0265131

Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., & Leiter, M. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory manual (3rd ed.). Consulting Psychologists Press.

Maslichah, N. I., & Hidayat, K. (2017). Pengaruh worklife balance dan lingkungan kerja terhadap kepuasan kerja karyawan [The impact of worklife balance and work environment on employee satisfaction]. Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis, 49(1), 60–68.

McConnon, A., Midgette, A. J., & Conry-Murray, C. (2022). Mother like mothers and work life fathers: U.S. heterosexual college students’ assumptions about who should meet childcare and housework demands. Sex Roles, 86, 49–66. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-021-01252-3

McKinsey & Company. (2020). Women in the workplace 2020. https://www.mckinsey.com/featured-insights/diversity-and-inclusion/women-in-the-workplace

Nugroho, D. A. (2019). Readiness for change lembaga pendidikan perkebunan ditinjau dari psychological capital dan perceived organizational support [Readiness for change of Lembaga Pendidikan Perkebunan in terms of psychological capital and perceived organizational support]. [Master Thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada]. http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/penelitian/detail/183005

Oludayo, O. A., Gberevbie, D. E., Popoola, D., & Omonijo, D. O. (2015). A study of multiple work-life balance initiatives in banking industry in Nigeria. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 133, 108–125.

Özbilgin, M. F., Beauregard, T. A., Tatli, A., & Bell, M. P. (2010). Work–life, diversity and intersectionality: A critical review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(2), 177–198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2010.00291.x

Parasuraman, S., Greenhaus, J. H., & Granrose, C. S. (1992). Role stressors, social support, and well-being among two-career couples. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(4), 339–356. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130403

Parris, M. A., Vickers, M. H., & Wilkes, L. (2008). Caught in the middle: Organizational impediments to middle managers’ work-life balance. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 20(2), 101–117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10672-008-9069-z

Pijpker, R., Vaandrager, L., Veen, E. J., & Koelen, A. M. (2020). Combined interventions to reduce burnout complaints and promote return to work: A systematic review of effectiveness and mediators of change. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010055

Pines, A. M., & Keinan, G. (2005). Stress and burnout: The significant difference. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(3), 625–635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.009

Poulose, S., & Sudarsan, N. (2014). Work-life balance: A conceptual review. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 3(2), 1–17.

Puspitasari, K. A., & Ratnaningsih, I. Z. (2019). Hubungan antara perceived organizational support dengan work-life balance pada karyawan PT. BPR Kusuma Sumbing di Jawa Tengah [The relationship between perceived organizational support and work-life balance on employees of PT. BPR Kusuma Sumbing in Central Java]. Jurnal Empati, 8(1), 82–86.

Rajadhyaksha, U., Korabik, K., & Aycan, Z. (2015). Gender, gender-role ideology, and the work-family interface: A cross-cultural analysis. In M. J. Mills (Ed.). In Gender and the work-family experience: An intersection of two domains (pp. 99–117). Springer International Publishing AG. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08891-4_6

Raymo, J. M., & Ono, H. (2007). Coresidence with parents, women’s economic resources, and the transition to marriage in Japan. Journal of Family Issues, 28(5), 653–681. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X06298236

Sheikh, A. M. (2022). Impact of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment of banking employees: Role of work-life balance. Journal of Asia Business Studies, Online First. https://doi.org/10.1108/JABS-02-2021-0071

Szigethy, E. (2014). “Burnout”: Strategies to prevent and overcome a common—and dangerous problem. Psychiatric Times, 31(5), 1–5.

Tanner, S. T. (2011). Process of burnout: Structure, antecedents, and consequences. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

Terborg, J. R. (1981). Interactional psychology and research on human behavior in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 6(4), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1981.4285691

Tuğsal, T., & Ülgen, B. (2017). Work life balance and social support as predictors of burnout: An exploratory analysis. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(3), 117–138. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2699

Voydanoff, P. (2004). The effects of work demands and resources on work to-family conflict and facilitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 398–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00028.x

Wampold, B. E., & Freund, R. D. (1987). Use of multiple regression in counseling psychology research: A flexible data-analytic strategy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34(4), 372–382.

Wardhani, N. N. K. (2019). Peran work life balance terhadap komitmen karir pada wanita karir Generasi Y[The role of work life balance on career commitment of Generation Y career women]. [Master Thesis, Universitas Gadjah Mada]. http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/penelitian/detail/170127

Wheatley, D. (2013). Location, vocation, location? Spatial entrapment among women in dual career households. Gender, Work and Organization, 20(6), 720–736. https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12005

Xu, Z., & Yang, F. (2018). The impact of perceived organizational support on the relationship between job stress and burnout: A mediating or moderating role? Current Psychology, 40(1), 402–413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9941-4

Zeng, X., Zhang, X., Chen, M., Liu, J., & Wu, C. (2020). The influence of perceived organizational support on police job burnout: A moderated mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(948), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00948




How to Cite

Riyono, B., & Rezki, G. (2022). Burnout among working mothers: The role of work-life balance and perceived organizational support. Humanitas: Indonesian Psychological Journal, 19(2), 109–121. https://doi.org/10.26555/humanitas.v19i2.31